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ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ

ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧԧ ܧѡ.ӧѧاߧ֧ۧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ اڧ٧ߧ֧է֧֧ݧߧ ѧڧ֧ݧߧԧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާ ֧ԧ ܧݧԧڧ֧ܧ ڧҧݧ֧ߧߧ ݧӧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ֧է (Walter, 1926, 1931). ֧ݧ , ڧݧ ڧߧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ ԧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧѧ

ڧ. 72. ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ է֧اѧߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧ- ܧݧݧڧէڧӧ٧ѧߧߧ է ֧֧ߧ ԧڧէѧѧڧ ҧڧܧݧݧڧէ  ҧ֧ԧѧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ ֧ڧ ڧݧ ާѧ:

1 ާڧ֧֧ܧܧӧߧߧѧ է: 2 ܧݧݧڧ ߧ ٧ ߧ ӧէ; S ֧֧ߧ ԧڧէѧѧڧ ҧڧܧݧݧڧէ; 4 ֧ާ֧ѧ ӧ٧է ܧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ֧֧ߧ ߧѧҧѧߧڧ ݧѧ٧ާ, ֧ߧ֧֧ۧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ܧ ߧѧէ ӧ֧ ߧӧߧ اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ֧ ѧ֧ߧڧ, էѧߧڧ, ڧߧ֧, ܧݧ֧ߧ ާ֧ѧҧݧڧ٧, ӧ

ڧ. 73. է֧اڧӧѧ֧ާѧ ܧݧ֧ܧѧާ ӧէ ݧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ 50%-ߧԧ ѧ ѧѧ٧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ ѧ٧ߧ ٧ڧާۧܧ: J--ڧݧ֧ӧ ѧߧߧڧ; 2--٧ѧҧ֧ݧݧ; 3ܧѧڧ֧ݧ; 4 ڧݧڧߧ; 5 ڧڧߧ֧; 6 ֧ާ֧ѧ ӧ٧է ܧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ

ӧݧ֧ߧڧ . . ݧ ܧѧاէԧ ѧ֧ߧڧ ֧ӧ֧ ڧާѧݧߧѧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ.

֧ܧ ѧӧ ڧѧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧ ާ٧- ٧ѧۧڧӧ ѧ֧ߧڧ (Le-vit, 1951, 1957; Lyxas, 1956).

ѧ֧ߧڧ ڧާާ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ӧѧ֧ ѧۧӧ اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ߧܧڧ. ѧڧާ֧, ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧާ֧էݧ֧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ֧է֧ݧߧ ܧߧ֧ߧѧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧԧ ܧ ާا֧ ֧ܧѧڧ. ӧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧ֧ߧѧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧԧ ܧ, ӧ٧ӧ- ԧ֧ ҧ֧٧ӧاڧӧѧߧڧ ݧѧ٧ާ, ߧѧҧݧէѧ֧ է֧֧ڧ ڧߧ֧٧, ڧ֧ ֧ ҧݧѧ, ֧ ڧݧߧ֧ ҧ֧٧ӧاڧӧѧߧڧ.

ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ էߧԧ ԧ ا ѧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧӧڧڧ, ֧اէ ӧ֧ԧ, ݧӧڧ ֧ԧ ڧ٧ѧѧߧڧ. ҧڧѧ֧ݧ ҧݧ֧ ڧ ӧ֧ߧߧ-ܧݧڧާѧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧݧѧ֧ ڧާ֧ ҧݧ֧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ.

ӧ٧ާاߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ߧڧ ѧ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ѧӧ (ѧڧݧ֧, 1935; ܧѧ٧ܧڧ, 1935; ѧܧڧާ, 1936; ѧݧ֧ܧ, اڧݧڧ, ѧڧߧ, 1936, է.).

ѧݧ֧ (Waller, 1931), ߧӧӧѧ ߧ ԧާߧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ, ڧ֧ ٧ѧܧݧ֧ߧڧ, ѧѧܧ֧ڧ٧ӧѧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧߧ ѧ֧ߧڧ ӧէ ާا֧ ߧ ѧҧݧߧ է֧اѧߧڧ ֧ ܧѧߧ, ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާѧ ԧڧէѧ, ܧѧ٧ӧѧѧ ֧֧ߧ ߧѧ֧ߧߧ ӧէ ݧѧ٧ާ. ާ֧ߧߧ ԧڧէѧ ݧѧ٧ާ ҧݧӧݧڧӧѧ֧, ѧݧ֧, ڧߧ֧ߧڧӧߧ ӧ֧ اڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧ֧ߧڧ.

ڧէѧ ѧާ ݧѧ٧ާ ڧ٧ާ֧ڧ ާ ߧ ߧڧ. ѧݧ֧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ էڧ ߧ֧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧԧ ܧ.

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ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧԧ ܧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ է ڧ ߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧݧ ߧ֧ާߧԧڧݧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧ. ڧ (Rives, 1925) ҧѧ֧, ҧߧѧاڧ ӧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ.

ݧ֧ էҧߧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ -էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧԧ ܧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ ӧ֧ݧ ݧݧ֧ӧ֧ݧէ ֧ۧݧ֧ (-weldt, Geisler, 1958). ߧ ѧߧӧڧݧ, ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧԧ ܧ ݧѧڧߧܧѧ ݧڧ֧ ӧ, ֧ ֧֧ܧѧ (ѧ٧ߧڧ ڧߧԧէ էڧԧѧ֧ 2--6 ѧ). ѧ٧ߧ ѧܧѧ ݧڧӧ ݧѧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧܧا ߧ֧էڧߧѧܧӧ ӧ֧ܧ ߧ ӧ. ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧ֧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ѧݧѧڧߧ ܧݧ֧. ߧѧݧԧڧߧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧ ҧݧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧ էԧڧ ѧ֧ߧڧ (Beck, 1930; Thoenes, 1930; Ursprung, Blum, 1916, է.).

ڧ, ߧѧէڧ֧ ߧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧܧѧ ҧ֧ԧ, ѧܧا ڧާ֧ ߧ֧էڧߧѧܧӧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ݧڧ ߧӧѧߧڧ ҧ֧ԧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ, ֧ ݧڧ ֧֧էڧߧ ڧݧ ӧ֧ܧ ҧ֧ԧ. ߧӧѧߧڧ ԧ ݧݧ֧ӧ֧ݧէ ֧ۧݧ֧ է֧ݧѧ ӧӧ, ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ ߧ ҧ֧ԧ ާ֧ߧ֧ ҧѧ٧ڧ֧ѧݧߧ. ާ֧اէ٧ݧڧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ԧէ ߧڧا, ֧ ݧڧӧ ݧѧڧߧܧѧ.

ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ֧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ էӧ֧ا֧ߧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ էߧ֧ӧߧ ܧݧ֧ҧѧߧڧ - 2,88 է 4,62 ѧ. ѧާݧڧէ էߧ֧ӧߧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ֧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ ӧ, ֧ էԧڧ ѧ֧ߧڧ (Fernald, 1925; Fuchs, 1935; Herrich, 1939; Lambrccht, 1929; March, 1941; Thoenes, 1930; Ursprung, Blum, 1916).

ѧڧҧݧ֧ ӧܧԧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ է ڧԧѧ֧ ާ֧اէ 9 13 , ڧ֧ ާѧܧڧާ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ߧѧѧ֧ ߧ֧էߧӧ֧ާ֧ ߧ. ߧԧէ ݧ ݧէߧ ާ֧ѧ֧ ӧ ާѧܧ ާ. ѧڧҧݧ֧ ߧڧ٧ܧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧѧӧݧڧӧѧ֧ 79 , ܧԧէ ֧ݧ֧ߧ֧ ӧӧݧ ӧ ѧ٧ݧ ڧ.

٧֧ߧڧ ֧٧ߧߧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ, ֧֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ԧ֧ѧڧ ֧ߧ ߧ ߧ֧֧ӧߧ ߧѧѧѧ֧, ڧ֧ ֧ާ ߧѧѧѧߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ߧ֧էڧߧѧܧ (ڧ. 74).

ӧ֧ߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧ ӧ֧ԧ֧ѧڧߧߧԧ ֧ڧէ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧ ѧܧا . . ߧէ . . է-ܧӧ (ѧҧ. 91).

ѧҧ. 91 ҧѧѧ ߧ ֧ҧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ߧڧ֧ݧߧ ߧڧ٧ܧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ էӧ -ѧڧ秲ڧ 10114. ӧ , ѧާ֧ڧܧѧߧܧڧ ӧڧէ ڧާ֧ ѧӧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ߧڧ٧ܧ ާڧ֧ܧ

էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧԧ ܧ ӧ֧ܧѧ֧ ѧܧا ڧ ѧҧ ݧݧ֧ӧ֧ݧ- ֧ۧݧ֧ (Allcwcldt, Geisler, 1958).

ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ӧݧڧߧڧ ߧ֧ܧ ѧܧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ֧է. ߧڧ ҧ ӧէ֧ݧ֧ ֧ߧڧ. ֧էߧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧԧ ܧ ݧڧ ѧ֧ާԧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ ݧ֧ߧ֧ ӧ֧ާ ѧӧߧݧѧ 12,5^13,5 ѧ, ݧڧ ߧ֧ѧ֧ާԧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ 15,516,5 ѧ, . . ҧݧ ߧ 3 ѧ ӧ. ܧߧ ݧ֧ (֧ߧҧ) ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧ֧ާԧ ߧ֧ѧ֧ާԧ ӧڧߧԧѧէ ӧ֧ݧڧڧӧѧݧ: ѧ٧ߧڧ ާ֧اէ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧާ ѧ֧ߧڧ ѧӧߧڧӧѧ֧ާ ӧڧߧԧѧէߧڧܧ էڧԧѧݧ 4,5 ѧ. ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ֧ݧ ҧ֧ާ է֧اѧߧڧ ӧէ ݧڧ ߧ֧ѧ֧ާ ѧ֧ߧڧ ާѧݧ ݧڧѧݧڧ ѧ֧ާ, ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ߧڧ էڧԧѧݧ 20 էѧا 30%. ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧ ާ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ է֧ݧߧ , էߧѧܧ, ߧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧ.

ߧѧݧԧڧߧ ֧٧ݧѧ ݧ֧ߧ ѧܧا ݧݧ֧ӧ֧ݧէ ֧ۧݧ֧ (Alleweldt, Geisler, 1958). ڧ էѧߧߧ, ӧ֧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧݧڧߧڧ֧ ٧ѧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧӧѧ֧, ڧ֧ ӧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧ ӧѧا֧ߧ էӧݧߧ ݧѧҧ. ӧ֧ߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧԧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧӧڧ ٧ѧ էڧԧѧ֧ 1534%.

ԧڧ ѧܧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ֧է, ܧѧ٧ӧѧڧ ӧݧڧߧڧ ߧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ӧݧ֧ ڧߧ֧ߧڧӧߧ ӧ֧֧ߧڧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ, ߧѧէڧ֧ ߧ ݧߧ֧ߧ ӧ֧ ݧڧ ӧ֧ԧէ ڧާ֧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ, ֧ ߧѧէڧ֧ ֧ߧ. ѧ٧ߧڧ ѧߧߧڧ ֧ߧߧڧ ѧ ߧ֧ҧݧѧ (2,04 ѧ), ߧ ٧ѧ֧ ߧ ҧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧӧѧ֧ ا 10 30 ާڧ էڧԧѧ֧ 7 ѧ. ݧ ݧէߧ, ܧݧ 14 , ӧߧӧ ҧߧѧاڧӧѧ֧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧѧ ѧ٧ߧڧ ާڧ֧ܧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ֧, ߧѧէڧ ѧ٧ߧ ݧӧڧ ӧ֧֧ߧߧ (Alleweldt, Geisler, 1958).